Thank you for introducing me to a new subject as well.
Lathe operators are the one, who basically operates machines, which are generally used to give shape to steel or titanium kind of metals.
They initially study a blueprint of the specific design required and as such initially it was manually set by the operator to get a design, but now are done through the computers
They are the skilled labour kind of job available as a course generally in the ITI category.
These are courses that are job oriented, after one finishes his class 10th.
Hope this was helpful.
Wish you good luck